The hole in the ozone layer of 2019 is the smallest since its discovery. How does ozone repair and how long does it take? Although there is a growing global demand for cooling systems for personal well-being and in the commercial sector, improved energy efficiency with little or no global warming potential will be needed to meet demand while minimizing the negative impact on climate and the environment. Research and development have kept pace: device design has changed and improved with the phase-out of ozone-depleting substances. So if ozone suddenly disappeared or was attacked by harmful chemicals – dare we say they are man-made – we would be in trouble. This is exactly what two chemists from the University of California, Irvine showed in 1974. The Protocol is still the only UN treaty that has been unanimously ratified by all UN member states. Today, the hole in the ozone layer is repairing itself and is expected to fully recover and heal in the coming decades. Equally important are the impacts that this treaty has had in the fight against climate change. From 1989 to 2013, the protocol`s ban on certain chemicals reduced cumulative CO2 equivalent emissions by 135 billion tonnes. The Montreal Protocol has succeeded in reducing ozone-depleting substances and reactive chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere. As a result, the ozone layer is showing the first signs of recovery.

The ozone layer is expected to return to pre-1980 levels by mid-century and the Antarctic ozone hole around 2060. Once released, ozone-depleting substances remain in the atmosphere for many years and continue to cause damage. The 2019 hole is indeed the smallest since its size began recording in 1982, but ozone is also affected by temperature changes and atmospheric dynamics caused by climate change. In 2019, the stratosphere was particularly warm in Antarctic winter and spring. The Copenhagen Amendment (1992)Exit significantly accelerated the phase-out of ozone-depleting SUBSTANCES and introduced a phase-out of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) for industrialized countries from 2004 onwards. Under this agreement, CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride and methyl chloroform are expected to be phased out completely in developed countries in 1996. In addition, methyl bromide consumption has been limited to 1991 levels. More information on the withdrawal of ODS is available here. SAPExit – The Scientific Assessment Panel (SAP) assesses the state of ozone depletion and relevant atmospheric problems. Chemicals such as CFCs and their substitutes, HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons) and now HFCs (hydrocarbons) contribute significantly to climate change.

HFCs do not damage the ozone layer, but have a warming capacity of 1,000 to 9,000 in the form of carbon dioxide. These chemicals are often used in refrigeration and air conditioning. On the one hand, a hole in the ozone layer has had a direct impact on human health in addition to its environmental impacts – such as damage to plants and marine ecosystems. According to the EPA, a thinned ozone layer could lead to skin cancer and cataracts. People tend to react to this type of threat, while climate change harms us in the long run, but not always immediately. Despite initial reactions, Rowland and Molina`s research was confirmed more than a decade later when British scientists discovered a hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica in 1985. The preparatory work done by Rowland and Molina established the link between human activity and the thinning of the ozone layer. In the 1970s and 1980s, the international community became increasingly concerned that ozone-depleting substances could damage the ozone layer.

In 1985, the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer formalized international cooperation on this issue. This cooperation led to the signing in 1987 of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. “In the face of a triple global crisis – climate, nature and pollution – the Montreal Protocol is one of the best examples we have of the positive and powerful outcome of multilateralism,” said Meg Seki, Executive Secretary of the Ozone Secretariat of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). “When sound science is the foundation for universal action, we can address seemingly insurmountable global environmental challenges.” The Kigali Amendment (2016) Exit expanded controls to phase out the production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), as these substances have been adopted by industry to move away from ozone-depleting substances, and they are powerful greenhouse gases that damage the Earth`s climate. The original Montreal Protocol, signed in 1987, was the first step in international efforts to protect stratospheric ozone. Under the original Montreal Protocol (1987), industrialized countries had to start phasing out CFCs in 1993 and achieve a 20 per cent reduction in consumption by 1994 compared to 1986 and a 50 per cent reduction in 1998. In addition, developed countries have been asked to freeze their production and consumption of halons from 1986 levels. After the signing of the Montreal Protocol, new data showed more severe than expected damage to the ozone layer. The Parties to the Montreal Protocol have advisory bodies called assessment bodies.

Results Assessment bodies are responsible for preparing regular reports on progress in the implementation of the phase-out of ozone-depleting substances, including assessments of alternatives and emission reductions. “Protecting the ozone layer is our long-term commitment and responsibility. Every generation must take over to ensure the continued survival of our planet`s shield. Educating the next generation about the Montreal Protocol lets them know that environmental challenges can be overcome if we listen to science and work together,” said Andrea Hinwood, UNEP Chief Scientist. At the Rome meeting, the parties were informed of an unexpected increase in global emissions of trichlorofluoromethane or CFC-11. Why and what are the plans to do about it? On September 23, the United Nations climate summit will revise commitments under the Paris Agreement, the current international treaty that aims to limit temperature rise to 2 degrees Celsius by the end of the century. In these upcoming talks, one may ask: can we apply the same courage and cooperation we had with the Montreal Protocol to our climate crisis? To halt ozone depletion, countries around the world have agreed to stop using ozone-depleting substances. This Convention was formalized in 1985 in the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and in 1987 in the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. In 2009, the Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol became the first treaties in the history of the United Nations to be universally ratified. The substances covered by the Protocol are referred to as `controlled substances`. The main substances include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform and methyl bromide. .